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Presented in International Conference, The Seventh Asia Pasific Conference on Transportation and The Environment, APTE7, 3-5 June 2010

Semarang, Indonesia

 

Erika BUCHARI

Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Fakultas Teknik Sipil

Universitas Sriwijaya

Jalan Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya. 30662

eribas17@gmail.com

Gandhi Indra PERMANA

Alumni

Department of Civil Engineering

Fakultas Teknik Sipil

Universitas Sriwijaya

Jalan Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya. 30662

gandhi_88@yahoo.co.id

 

ABSTRACT

 

Multimodal Public Transport (MMPT) is a series of trips that use two or more modes, which are integrated, connected by transfer points, and have the rules so that the travel using public transport can be shortened in terms of time and money. This research is connected to the previous studies and findings of Ness (2002), Krygsman (2004), and Buchari (2008). The steps of the research is firstly to find the problems on the field, secondl, to set up the goals, and  study the literature. Then, the nest step is to collect, process and analyze the data. Data were collected by the counting surveys, public transport movement surveys, and interview surveys. Data were analyzed by description method and matrix methods. The description method is outlining the eight variables, which includes family status, gender, age, employment, and number of vehicles in the family car. The number of motor vehicles in the family, private vehicle user priorities in the family, and the salaries (plus allowances) per month. While the matrix method is revealing the analysis of multimodal components; namely connecting modes, main modes, multimodal networks, facilities for intermodal transition, and regulations. Modal split for all trips with a distinction between unimodal and multimodal trips are obtained. The share of multimodal trips is 48.10% of all trips, which is higher than Palembang, which is 32.9% and Netherlands 2.9%.

 

Keywords: Multimodal Public Transport . Unimoda. Multimodality. Transfer Points

 

 

1.       INTRODUCTION

 

Travel arises because someone has to move from one place to another  to get the needs and activities. Therefore. for each trip there must be the origin and destination. In the process of achieving origin and destination. Sometimes people only use one vehicle (unimoda), which is usually used as personal vehicles. But there are also many people that use more than one mode (multimoda) for travel in public transport system. The travels that use several modes usually need longer journey time and more money, so many of them switch to personal vehicles.

 

Multimodal Public Transport (MMPT) is a transportation system that offers public transportation systems which are connected and integrated one another so that the trip using public transportation from origin to destination will be more effective and efficient. both in time and cost. MMPTcan have an integrated system. such as one means of payment (cards. smart cards). In addition, MMPT also has integrated schedules of many routes. Therefore. MMPT can be one solution to attract private vehicle users to use public transport so that it can reduce the volume of vehicles on the highway.

 

Bogor has acute urban transportation problem. It is known as the ‘Kota Sejuta Angkot’, which  describes the level of current stage of public transports operated in Bogor. Angkutan Kota (Angkot). informal public transports have been suspected as the causes of congestion in Bogor. Researches on multimodality of Public Transport have been done by Nes  in the Netherlands. and Buchari in Palembang (Nes. 2002. Buchari. 2008).  In Netherlands. the share of  multimodality only 2.9% while in Palembang reached 32.9%. This means the Netherland dominated by single or unimoda public transport (bicycle and cars) whereas Palembang is dominated by public transports.

As it has been done in the Netherlands and Palembang, the study of  multimodal public transport in Bogor will be conducted. The purpose of this research is; (1) to obtain data regarding the share of multimodality in Bogor and to solve the problem of its public transport. What are the causes of the heavy congestion in the central city of Bogor? Is it because of the high mobility of the internal movement of population Bogor itself. or it is caused by internal-external and external-internal trip. or it may well be caused by external-external movement crossing Bogor city; (2) to fulfil  the real need of public transportation in Bogor.

 

 

2.      LITERATURE STUDY

 

Multimodal Public Transport system has been well known in recent years. Some model approaches have been developed by many researchers, such as developing intermodal transport building, and developing the travel behaviour demand models for multimodal travel chain. Among researchers that have multimodal public transport research (MMPT).  Nes analyzed the level of multimodal public transport needs in the Netherlands (Nes. 2002). Krygsman  found the main modes, access and aggress modes on multimoda network (Krygsman. 2004). Buchari found six main components contained in multimodal public transport system as it is presented in the following figure (Buchari . 2008). It includes (1) Connecting Modes or before (access) and after (egress) modes, (2) Main Modes, (3) Multimodal Network (Main route. Feeder Route), (4) Transfer Point, (5) Intermodal Transfer Points and (6) Counter Measures.

 Figure 1: Component of multimodal public transportation
 3.      METHODOLOGY

 

Overall plan of this research can be seen in the following flow chart.

Literature Study

Goal:

Enhancing PT system toward MMPT system

Problem on the field:      Congestion, execcive no of Oplet, low occupancy of oplet

 

 

Problem Formulation:

·         How is the characteristics of passenger of PT in Bogor

·         How is Level of multimodality di Bogor

·         How is components of  MMPTin Bogor

Data Collection:

 

Data Processing:

Tabulation, matrices product

 

Analysis:

·         Descriptive Analysis

·         Matrices Analysis for elements of MMPT

 

Conclusion

 

Primary Data:

Counting survey, public transport movement survey, interview survey)

 

Secondary data:

Central Statistics Beurou (Badan Pusat Statistik)

 

 

 

Figure 2: Flow Chart of Research

 

 

4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

 

4.1. Counting Survey

 

The survey location is shown in Figure 2. After processing the data of counting survey which is conducted in 6 of the city borders in Bogor. The results can be presented as in the following table 1, 2, and 3.  As a whole, it can be concluded that trips in and out of Bogor (External-Internal and Internal-External trip) are dominated by motorcycle. The average use of motorcycles reached above 50% on every street in every postal survey, except in Tajur and Ciheuleut. In Ciheuleut, only a little number of motorcycles that pass through the road because it is a TOLL road access so that it was dominated by private cars.

 

From the Counting data, it can also be seen that the movement of vehicles in and out for micro-buses and buses are still very low (not more than 9%). People  prefer to  use their own motorcycle rather than buses. It is because they prefer to travel fast, to feel safe,  comfortable. effective and efficient. The high use of motorcycle (and private car  use) cause heavy traffic congestion and this is a big problem in transportation system. Therefore, it requires a system that can answer these demands so that private vehicle users can switch to public transport modes.

 

Table 1: Vehicle Movement Composition at 07.00-09.00 (in percent)

 

Direction Movement

TWV

PC

O

MB

B

MC

LGV

NMV

Total

Parung (Parung – Bogor)

0

16.74

10.74

2.6

0.5

56.72

12.69

0

100

Parung (Bogor – Parung)

0

22.84

15.64

3.32

1.23

46.91

10.07

0

100

Cibinong (Cibinong-Bogor)

0.04

14.77

18.73

2.06

1.29

56.15

6.966

0

100

Cibinong (Bogor-Cibinong)

0

23.35

15.46

0.77

0.84

52.09

7.489

0

100

Tajur (Sukabumi-Bogor)

0

16.23

21.25

1.92

3.52

36.12

20.93

0.03

100

Tajur (Bogor-Sukabumi)

0

16.74

12.8

8.19

7.46

25.06

29.76

0

100

Ciheuleut (Jakarta – Bogor)

0

84.43

1.787

1.83

3.07

0

8.887

0

100

Ciheuleut (Bogor – Jakarta)

0

86.98

1.83

0.88

2.58

0

7.734

0

100

Ciomas (Ciomas-Bogor)

0

18.46

30.44

0.19

0

45.44

5.466

0

100

Ciomas (Bogor-Ciomas)

0

10.11

21.86

0

0

47.35

20.68

0

100

Dramaga (Dramaga-Bogor)

0

9.468

18.62

0.14

0.07

67.37

4.335

0

100

Dramaga (Bogor-Dramaga)

0

10.73

21.12

0.2

0.32

62.01

5.613

0

100

Source: analysis

 

Table 2: Vehicle Movement Composition at 12.00-14.00 (in percent)

 

Direction Movement

TWV

PC

O

MB

B

MC

LGV

NMV

Total

Parung (Parung – Bogor)

0

17.16

10.58

1.59

0.33

53.13

17.2

0

100

Parung (Bogor – Parung)

0

21.25

8.63

1.32

0.12

52.44

16.3

0

100

Cibinong (Cibinong-Bogor)

0

18.25

20.15

1.65

0.19

46.91

12.8

0

100

Cibinong (Bogor-Cibinong)

0

13.67

15.13

0.76

2.28

56.67

11.5

0

100

Ciheuleut (Jakarta – Bogor)

0

74.2

2.31

1.37

2.56

0

19.6

0

100

Ciheuleut (Bogor – Jakarta)

0

80.63

1.135

0.71

2.77

0.213

14.5

0

100

Tajur (Sukabumi-Bogor)

0

17.89

23.96

3.3

2.85

34.68

17.3

0

100

Tajur (Bogor-Sukabumi)

0

17.87

27.73

1.61

2.44

38.3

12

0

100

Ciomas (Ciomas-Bogor)

0

21.76

21.49

0.27

0

53.24

3.24

0

100

Ciomas (Bogor-Ciomas)

0

9.968

26.27

0.04

0

61.05

2.67

0

100

Dramaga (Dramaga-Bogor)

0

12.66

24.47

0.18

0.07

54.96

7.64

0

100

Dramaga (Bogor-Dramaga)

0

14.08

21.79

0.19

0

54.91

9.03

0

100

Source: analysis

 

Table 3: Vehicle Movement Composition at 16.00-18.00 (in percent)

 

Direction Movement

TWV

PC

O

MB

B

MC

LGV

NMV

Total

(Parung – Bogor)

0

15.65

7.743

1.15

0.11

63.26

12.1

0

100

Parung (Bogor – Parung)

0

27.32

8.101

1.02

0.2

46.67

16.7

0

100

Cibinong (Cibinong-Bogor)

0.02

13.43

16.56

2.04

0.55

62.19

5.22

0

100

Cibinong (Bogor-Cibinong)

0

10.97

12.36

0.92

0.41

69.54

5.81

0

100

Ciheuleut (Jakarta – Bogor)

0

85.81

0.965

1.07

1.86

0.034

10.3

0

100

Ciheuleut (Bogor – Jakarta)

0

80.14

3.05

1.23

1.82

0.036

13.7

0

100

Tajur (Sukabumi-Bogor)

0

21

24.84

2.56

3.19

32.92

15.5

0

100

Tajur (Bogor-Sukabumi)

0

19.3

29.65

4

1.84

32.83

12.4

0

100

Ciomas (Ciomas-Bogor)

0

25.88

20.21

0.29

0.57

49.86

3.19

0

100

Ciomas (Bogor-Ciomas)

0

10.62

28.4

0.04

0.11

59.05

1.79

0

100

Dramaga (Dramaga-Bogor)

0

11.48

17.25

0.16

0.23

63.32

7.56

0

100

Dramaga (Bogor-Dramaga)

0

9.73

18.75

0.32

0.06

66.25

4.88

0

100

Source: analysis

 

 

Note:

TWV

=

Three Wheel Vehicle (Bemo dan Bajaj)

PC

=

Private Car (sedan. st wagon. jeep)

O

=

Opelet (public transport). Pick Up. Combi. Sub Urban

MB

=

Micro Bus

B

=

Bus

MC

=

Motor cycle

LGV

=

Light Good Vehicle (pick up. truck)

NMV

=

Non Motorized Vehicle (bicycle. pedicap. pulled by animal)

 

 

 

 

 Figure 3: Map of Counting Survey Locations

 

 

 

4.2. Public Transport Movement Survey

 

Public Transport Movement Survey was conducted in 4 public transportation routes in Bogor. The results can be seen in Figure 4, 5, 6 and 7 as in the following sub sections.

 

4.2.1.        Public Transport 01 (Baranangsiang-Ciawi) Route

From the Figure 3, it can be seen that the public transport route 01 (Baranangsiang-Ciawi) has quite high load factor, which is 0.74, but it is only at 16.00-18.00 hours. While at 07.00-09.00 hours and 12.00-14.00 the load factors are still low,  namely 0.59 and 0.52. It means that the number of public transport Baranangsiang-Ciawi is excessive so that occupancies are low. Therefore, oplets needs to be reduced because it is considered less efficient.

 

Figure 4: The Graph of Loading Factor in Baranangsiang-Ciawi Route

 

4.2.2.        Public Transport 03 (Baranangsiang-Bubulak) Route

Figure 4 shows that the public transport route 03 (Baranangsiang-Bubulak) has an extremely high load factor (1.2). It seems that  number of oplets are less then they were required. But after it is confirmed with the number of oplets during the day. It shows that the route has high load factor only in short time during congestion time (12.00-14.00). Meanwhile. in the morning hours (07.00-09.00) and afternoon (16.00-18.00) load factors are still low, which is 0.49. This shows that there has been a very bad traffic at the time. This makes the spread of passengers is not smooth at that hours.

 

Figure 5: The Graph of Loading Factor in Baranangsiang-Bubulak Route

 

4.2.3.        Public Transport 05 (Cimahpar-Ramayana) Route

From the Figure 5,  it reveals that the route 05 (Cimahpar-Ramayana) has very low  load factors in the morning (07.00-09.00). which is only 0.23 on the average. But there are enough passengers jump drastically in the afternoon and evening time. respectively 0.64 and 0.69.

Figure 6: The Graph of Loading Factor in Cimahpar-Ramayana Route

 

4.2.4.        Public Transport 08 (Pasar Anyar-Citeureup) Route

From the Figure 6, it shows that route 08 (Pasar Anyar-Citeureup) has a low load factor. This means that the number of public transport (Pasar Anyar-Citeureup) in Bogor is excessive. Therefore, the reduction of number of oplets is necessary for this direction because  it is not efficient.

Figure 7: The Graph of Loading Factor in Pasar Anyar-Citeureup Route

 

 4.3. Interview Survey

 

Surveys was conducted  between 2-5 October 2009, in residence of 6 Zones (kecamatan), terminal, and train station. Population is represented by population of households which has members in age of trip makers (Assumed as Senior high school students to elderly). Number of Bogor Population, according to statistical data in 2006 is 750,250. Sampling taken for interview survey is 3025. After processing the data from interview surveys. obtained information on population characteristics of Bogor travel patterns can be seen in Table 4.

 

Table 4: Characteristics of travel patterns of residents Bogor

 

Variable

Characteristics

Family Status

Father (47.93%); Children (37.72%); Mother (12.93%); Brothers/sisters (1.32%); Grandmother/Grandfather (0.10%)

Gender

Men (73.19%); Women (26.81%)

Age

Age 25-40 (46.48%); Age 41-60 (23.97%); Age 18-24 (18.81%);

Age 12-17 (9.65%); Age >60 (1.09%)

Employment

Private Sector (33.52%); Students (17.55%); Trader/Private (17.39%); Civil Servant (8.40%); labour (7.85%); Security (4.76%); Housewives (3.7%); Professionals (0.79%); Managers (0.69%); Retirement (0.83%); Farmers (0.83%); Unemployment (1.16%)

Number Of Car In The Family

No Car (94.21%); One Car (5.06%); Two Cars (0.60%); More than two Cars (0.13%)

The Number Of Motorcycle In The Family.

No motorcycles (48.73%); One motorcycles (46.94%); two motorcycles (3.90%); More than two motorcycles (0.43%)

Private Vehicle User Priorities In The Family

No Private Cars (46.18%); Father (36%); Children (14.38%); Mother (2.28%); Brothers/sisters (1.12%); Grandmother/Grandfather (0.03%)

The Salaries And Allowances Per Month

Rp500.000.00-Rp1.500.000.00 (44.76%); Rp1.500.001.00-Rp2.500.000.00 (24.99%); less than Rp500.000.00 (22.71%); Rp2.500.000.00-Rp3.500.000.00 (5.36%);   Rp3.500.000.00-Rp5.000.000.00 (1.52%); more than Rp5.000.000.00 (0.66%)

 Source: analysis

 

4.4.  Multimodality in Bogor

 

Table 5 shows the modal split for all trips with a distinction between unimodal and multimodal trips. It can be seen from the table that the share of multimodal trips is 48.10% of all trips. If it is compared to Palembang study case (Buchari. 2008) which is 32.9% of all trips are multimodal. the need for multimodal trip in Bogor is quite high.

 

Table 5: The level of multimoda public transport needed in Bogor

 

Main modes

all trips (%)

unimodal (%)

multimodal (%)

% multimoda

Walking

13.68595

13.55371901

0.132231405

0.966183575

Bicycle

0.2644628

0.26446281

0

0

Pedicap

1.1570248

0.132231405

1.024793388

88.57142857

(Take) Motorcycle

32.92562

32.66115702

0.26446281

0.803212851

(Passenger) Motorcycle

2.9752066

0.925619835

2.049586777

68.88888889

(Take) Car

2.9421488

2.776859504

0.165289256

5.617977528

(Passenger) Car

0.7933884

0.396694215

0.396694215

50

Bus

6.1487603

0.132231405

6.016528926

97.84946237

Public Transport

33.652893

0.991735537

32.66115702

97.05304519

Train

5.0578512

0

5.05785124

100

Taxi

0.0330579

0

0.033057851

100

Passenger (Truck)

0

0

0

0

Others

0.3636364

0.066115702

0.297520661

81.81818182

 

100

51.90082645

48.09917355

 

Source: analysis

 

It can be seen that the passengers of train and taxi modes have a percentage reaches 100%. For train. it is reasonable that the user requires another mode. But for the taxi. this 100% multimodality reveals that people use taxis only for connection, not for door to door service as usual.  

 

For users of cars and motorcycle, the percentage of multimodality or dependency on other modes are low , which are 0.80 and 5.62. This shows that almost all private vehicle users do not change the modes to reach their destination. But passengers of Cars and Motorcycles which have options in choosing private and public vehicles, their demands are parking facilities at terminals and stations to facilitate them to change their modes to buses and trains. This demands account for  68.89% and 50%.

 

Captive passengers of bus and oplet, their multimodality or dependencies on other modes is ultimate and extremely high which are 97.85 and 97.05. This indicates that bus and oplet need  to combine with other mode and it should be facilitated.

 

4.5. Analysis Results of Multimodal Public Transport Components

 

The results of analysis of 6 components of multinodality will be described in subsequent sub headings.

 

4.5.1. Connecting Modes

 

From the matrix Origin1-Moda. it can be seen that the most chosen mode for the first mode  in the tripchain is walking (54.12%). See Figure 7. This means that there is the need for sidewalk facilities, such as zebra cross, and bridge crossing on the highway or road, good pedestrian without mud,  and street lights for pedestrian at night. The second highest mode choice for acces modes are motorcycles, which is 24.71%. Many Bogor residents who do not use public transport will choose motorcycle to reach their destination. The third rank of access modes is oplet (3.83%). Next access choices are cars (2.98%), passenger motorcycle (2.28%), passenger cars (0.73%, becak (0.3 %). and bicycles (0.3%).

 

4.5.2. Main Mode

 

From the matrix Mode1- Mode2, it is revealed  that the most mode used in the second mode is the main  mode of public transport, which is oplet 72.68%, followed by Bus (6.85%), Train (7.14%).  But all those main modes are obviously dependent on the population with modes public transport in Bogor. It was the government who should give special attention to the existence of the public transport. especially infrastructure facilities and regulations. It aims to create a comfortable atmosphere. and safety in Bogor.

 

4.5.3. Multimoda Public Transport Network

 

Public Transport Network can be analyzed from matrices originmode1, orgin-mode2 etc. It can be recognized that the primary network and feeder networks are overlapped. Oplets are operated in the network in the city, in pramary and secondary road. However, oplets are also are operated in small streets in kampong and residential areas as access roads.

 

Figure 8:  Multimodal Public Transport Network in Bogor

 

4.5.4. Transfer Point (TP) and Intermodal Transfer Point (ITP)

 

TP and ITP analysis using matrices program M1-M2, M2-M3, M3. M4, and  M4-M5.

1) Analysis of Matrix M1-M2:

Based on Matrix M1-M2, the largest access modes to the train is walking 52 trip ( 49.06%). motorcycle 26 trips (24.53%).,public transport 19 trip (17.92%). The second largest mode before using the train mode is motorcycle (24.53%). This shows the need for parking facilities to accommodate the motorcycle before continueing the journey by train. Before using the train, many respondents use oplet (17.92%). This needs Intermodal Transfer Points between Oplet and Train mode.

2) Analyze of Matrix M2-M3

The matrix M2M3 gives data 715 trips (56.22%) that terminated. It can be seen from the connection by walking. and continued trip by (passenger) motorcycle are 10 trips (1.20%). Respondents that continue the trips is 297 (41.54%) consists of 87 trips travel (12.17%) by the bus. 168 trips (23.50%) by public transport. 42 trips (5.87%) by public transport that in the third modes of travel (people who use up to 3 modes ).

3) Analyze of Matrix M3-M4

By viewing the M3-M4 matrix. the remaining trip that seems continue from the third mode to the fourth mode by public transport are 46 trips ( 24.60%), continued with bus and train as much as 9 ( 4.81%). The travellers that terminate at their destinatioan by using mode 3 and 4 were 117 respondents (62.57%) consisted of 1 respondent by walking (0.33%). 1 respondent by becak (0.33%). 28 respondents by the bus (9.33%).100 respondents by oplet (33.33%), and 44 respondent by train (14.67%). Taxi passengers are as much as 2 (0.67%). and others as much as 6 trips (2%).

 

4.5.5. Regulation. Policies and Organizations

 

Regulations, policies. and organizations should be prepared for MMPT. The preparation regulation includes institutional reform, Route network planning policy, Intermodal Transfer Point, Time Schedule, new mass transit, the service organization, payment system, partnership system, public transport service tender, Organizations required (Urban transport authority; and Organization of public transport operators).

 

 

5. CONCLUSION

 

From the previous chapters. it can be conclude that:

(1)    The share of multimodality in Bogor is 48.10% (Palembang, 32.9% and Netherlands, 2.9%). Dependency of oplets on other modes should be taken account. From Origin Destination Matrices, the internal zone trips are high, but if we see from matrices Origin-Modes, it can be seen that mostly first trip done by walking (  %).  If government provided public transport services based on Origin Destination data only, without considering Origin-mode matrices, the provision of service will be misleading. As a result, the real problem of oplets is low load factors of oplets in central area. The city gives the service for local urban people, such as more angkots (oplets), but actually the real cause is the commuters. The internal-external and external-internal trips are quite high and external-external movement crossing Bogor city is also considerably high.

(2)    Since the most chosen mode for the access mode  is walking (54.12%), then demands for sidewalk facilities, (such as zebra cross, and bridge crossing on the highway or road, good pedestrian without mud,  and street lights for pedestrian at night) should be provided. Overlapping network bentween main network and feeder should be corrected. Many Bogor residents who do not use public transport will choose motorcycle to reach their destination. Infrastructure for Transfer Points and Intermodal Transfer Points  to facilitate motorcyclist, should be made, as well as for oplet passengers (3.83%), car users  (2.98%), ojek passengers (2.28%), car passengers (0.73%), becak passengers (0.3 %). and bicyclist (0.3%).

 

 

LITERATURES

 

Bovy. H.L.P. 2002. Progress Report Seamless Multimodal Mobility 1997-2001. TRAIL Research School. Delft.

Buchari Erika, (2009), A multimodal public transport planning guidance for sustainable transport in developing countries, International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), – Vol. 8, No.3/4  pp. 263 – 285

Krygsman. Stephen. (2004). Activity and Travel Choice(s) in Multimodal Public Transport System. PhD Dissertation. the urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU). Utrecht.

Nes. Van Roberts. (2002). Design of multimodal transport networks. a hierarchical Approach. PhD Dissertation-TRAIL-Thesis Series T2002/5. The Netherlands TRAIL Research School. DUP Science. Delft.

Tamin. Ofyar. Z. (2003) Perencanaan dan Pemodelan Transportasi. Penerbit ITB. Bandung.


Transportation condition in my country and many developing countries are still in bad condition. Almost all public transports do not have time schedule and fixed stop. Excessive motor vehicles in urban areas have been distressing. This site is dedicated for a better life of people. It is the right of people to have a good transportation, to reject pollution, noise and bad condition of transportation. Moreover, people have the right to prevent from good transportation they have experienced become bad condition. I hope many people, experts and practitioners can share their opinion in this website so that transport knowledge and science will be well-known. As a result, many decision makers will take a good care in making decision regarding transport planning and policy. Through this website, I am expecting a multimodal public transport forum can be established. Therefore, I am inviting visitors, who have their concern about transport problem and sustainable transport will join this forum.


Women, inherently make many activities at home and some of them also have activities at job places. This is caused by double role of women in career and household. In developed countries, women position may be better, because men can share work at home. Different with those in developed countries, many women in developing countries have to deal with both jobs and houseworks, while husbands concentrate on their jobs only. Consequently, more trips are made by women within a day.

Let us see what have been written by some researches regarding trips made by women in developing countries. There are similarities in trip characteristics in developing countries, that the priority of using cars are dominated by males as husbands or head of households, particularly for households having one car. Tricia L. Brennan, in the second National Proceeding regarding woman trip issues, stated that:

If women made trip in Puebla, they made more trips with many reasons, and they depended mostly on public transport. Whereas, Angela Astrop, Crowthorne University, United Kingdom in her research regarding women trip behaviour stated that in Pune, India, society with low income relayed on cheap public transport and walking. Bicycle would become essential transport means for individual, but women generally could not get the access for bicycle in a household because of the culture.

As the case study in Puebla Mexico, analysis of women behaviour in Palembang, Indonesia, one of developing countries showed that car ownership of the samples were 57,10% non car owner and 42,90% car owner. It meant 57,10% were “captive passanger” for public transport either for male and female. While, for priority of women using cars were 37,19%. As the case in Puebla,Mexico, women in Palembang, Indonesia also depend mostly on public transport (88.7%).

From this reality, problem of women trips in developing countries can be formulated as the following:

  1. How to capture the women trip characteristics either as car users or as public transport users.
  2. How is the women behaviour in utilizing public transport?
  3. How women behaviour in making trips can be considered in transport planning?

Many travel diary survey formats have been developed by researchers. All we need to do is to develop analysis toward women trips characteristics. After that, some improvements on designed format can be developed, in order to capture the the purpose of women’s activity. In capturing the women behaviour in utilizing public transport, survey results in Palembang study showed that women tend to choose door to door service that can reduce walk trip, such as using becak (tricycle) and Ojek (taxi-motorcycle).

Now, after all data from women trip characteristics are obtained, government may not neglect this in planning implementation. Government might think, after all this years, there is no exception about women and we have “no problem” about that, why should we pay special attention for women trips? But, this opinion is not true. Let us see, portraits of some cities, where some becak (tricycles) or Ojek (public transport-motorcycles) or minibus (oplet, mikrolet) wait for their customers. Most of their customers are women who do not want to walk far. So, these public transports can far from the market or intersections. How can we make regulations, if we never consider these demands?

Transfer points which consider and facilitate those connecting modes (becak, ojek and oplet, and parking cars) are important to remove the congestion from the market (on street and off street).


New paradigm of urban development acknowledges the concept of empowerment of the society. Public involvement should start from planning, and continue with decision making, implementation and supervision of the development process. Therefore, it is essential to regulate public involvement, in order to guarantee that the society empowerment process runs well.

The mentioned paradigm should be defined and formulated in such a way that it can provide finances necessary to develop a city or a region. With this regard, Law No.22 of year 1999 is not enough, but has to be accompanied by central and local government regulations (”Peraturan Pemerintah”, and “Peraturan Daerah”).

The scheme of a community based development is not only to introduce public participation in the development process, but also to encourage people in term of controlling Master Plans (land use and transport), urban planning in general, and urban infrastructure, which should reflect the integrated needs of local communities. Since these needs are sometime contradictory, and private sector participation, if not conveniently regulated can become a threat, to minimize disputes there is the need of prominent points.

Public participation in NGO can be developed further to implement innovative projects for satisfying social needs. Primary attention could be concentrated in building local community character and behaviors, social economy, and developing working groups. If these working groups can enhance people quality of life, then it is not difficult to find honest, cooperative, and hardworking persons collaborating in these groups, and qualified persons can always develop and produce innovative programs, based on social needs. We can see, however, two main problems, which stand on the way of the process implementation:

1) Can local government guarantee the implementation, which is based on the needs of a low  class working group?

2) Have local communities sufficient knowledge of their right, and are they able to get their needs fulfilled?

 

In order to guarantee public participation, there is the need to measure public participation and public involvement in community based development. Based on the experience of Dewan Kota NGO in Palembang, concerning a “public inquiry for Palembang strategic scenario”, mostly the society still hesitate to participate. This is related to the fact that many people believe that a public inquiry will not help to solve their problems.

Transport Regulations in developing countries are weak in many cases. Learning from developed countries is a good idea, but adopting totally the remedies from developed countries can be misleading. Regulation should be made, interactively communicated with the stakeholders in home countries. Local transport expert should detect and make a good sense. The weaknesses of regulation in developing countries are not strong in academic draft; mostly they are not based on the survey and not strong in power to put people in jail if they break the law. Both problems are rooted from the local parliament that is not competence in producing regulation.

In terms of Developing transport regulation, transport policy, and organization, the community based development as it is shown in the following figure is recommended. Why this framework is recommended? Because, in this system new approach of decision making is introduced, where stakeholder, experts and government are acknowledged as important actors. Then, they are all involved in discussion about implementation of Transport Planning (Lay out and Financial), discussions of stake holder forum regarding Transport Planning Policy, and finally in the process of adjustment with Regulation/policy.


By: Erika Buchari

Palembang is one of big cities in Indonesia. Inherently multimodal transport already exists, but what are the characteristics of multimodal mobility today in Palembang and in developing countries? How are the characteristics such as the share of multimodal transport compared to unimodal transport and the modes used in multimodal trips?.

In order to answer these questions, home interview data analysis was made of the Palembang city Survey (Buchari, 1998). This survey collected travel-data for 2520 household samples. Given that multimodal trips do not have sequences of services and modes further study was made of the surveys for 2004. In this way there are more observations available for some particular combinations of modes.

From data analysis the share of multimodal trips is 32.9% of all trips. If it is compared to Netherlands study case Nes (2002) which is 2.9% of all trips are multimodal, the need for multimodal trip is quite high. The car ownership is 42.9 % of 2520 respondents. After crisis in 1997, the car ownership goes even lower to 30% of respondents (Buchari, 1998).

42.71% of all trips are multimodal trips which consist of two legs, that is, two vehicle modes are used. 19.21% of multimodal trips contain three legs, only 4.8% of multimodal trips consist of four or more legs. When looking at the main mode, that is, the mode used to cover the largest distance and the longer time, paratransit or oplet (13.29%) is the most important mode accounting for 40.35% of all multimodal trips. The second mode is bus, having 38.52%. Further, tricycle or becak and walk are noticed as the important, complement mode for short distance, accounting for 9.05% and 6.98% of all multimodal trips, while, private cars only account for 1.58% of all multimodal trips.

Multimodal travel is dominant for bus, accounting for 87.88% of all bus trips. It is followed by boat, accounting for 83.33% of all boat trips and paratransit or oplet having 62.39% of all oplet’s trips. For the private modes it ranges between 1.9% for car passenger and 14.39% for car driver, motorcycle and bicycle.

To summarize, in order to know demand of multimodality, home interview survey is designed in such a way to capture the need of society in a study area. As an example, the following table will show the multimodality in Palembang.


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