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August 2008
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MULTI MODAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT (MMPT) IN PALEMBANG

By: Erika Buchari

Palembang is one of big cities in Indonesia. Inherently multimodal transport already exists, but what are the characteristics of multimodal mobility today in Palembang and in developing countries? How are the characteristics such as the share of multimodal transport compared to unimodal transport and the modes used in multimodal trips?.

In order to answer these questions, in 1997 analysis was made of the Palembang city Survey (Buchari, 1998). This survey collected travel-data for 2520 household samples. Given that multimodal trips do not have sequences of services and modes further study was made of the surveys for 2004. In this way there are more observations available for some particular combinations of modes.

From data analysis the share of multimodal trips is 32.9% of all trips. If it is compared to Netherlands study case Nes (2002) which is 2.9% of all trips are multimodal, the need for multimodal trip is quite high. The car ownership is 42.9 % of 2520 respondents. After crisis in 1997, the car ownership goes even lower to 30% of respondents (Buchari, 1998).

42.71% of all trips are multimodal trips which consist of two legs, that is, two vehicle modes are used. 19.21% of multimodal trips contain three legs, only 4.8% of multimodal trips consist of four or more legs. When looking at the main mode, that is, the mode used to cover the largest distance and the longer time, paratransit or oplet (13.29%) is the most important mode accounting for 40.35% of all multimodal trips. The second mode is bus, having 38.52%. Further, tricycle or becak and walk are noticed as the important, complement mode for short distance, accounting for 9.05% and 6.98% of all multimodal trips, while, private cars only account for 1.58% of all multimodal trips.

Multimodal travel is dominant for bus, accounting for 87.88% of all bus trips. It is followed by boat, accounting for 83.33% of all boat trips and paratransit or oplet having 62.39% of all oplet’s trips. For the private modes it ranges between 1.9% for car passenger and 14.39% for car driver, motorcycle and bicycle.

In order to know demand of multimodality, home interview survey, which is designed to capture the need of society in a study area. As an example, the following table will show the multimodality in Palembang.

[table]

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